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PostWysłany: Nie 18:23, 22 Sty 2006    Temat postu: Przetłumaczone

Tutaj można umieszczać przetłumaczone ciekawostki o zwierzętach...
Jeśli się nie wie jakiegoś fragmentu tekstu umieszcza się ją w pytajnikach, może ktoś pomoże... Very Happy

Oto kawałeczek, pod nim umieszczam orginalny tekst, próbujcie tłumaczyć Very Happy

"Niektóre robią to wisząc do góry nogami, niektóre robią to pod skrzydłem, Question Some appear not to do it all Question . Ujawnimy wam jak ptaki śpią.

Ciepło i bezpieczeństwo mają większy wpływ niż słodkie sny.

Ludzie mają łatwiej. Nasz dzień kończy się w domu z ciepłym łóżkiem i kocami Question to keep us snug and warm through the night. Question

Orginalny tekst( na [link widoczny dla zalogowanych]

"Some do it hanging upside down. Some do it on the wing. Some appear not to do it all. Unveil how birds sleep.

Warmth and security are more important than sweet dreams.

Humans have it easy. Our day ends indoors with a warm bed and blankets to keep us snug and warm through the night. We can enjoy a deep sleep and not worry about being eaten in our slumbers. For birds a night's rest is a risky business. They are light sleepers, tuned to their surroundings and roused in an instant by the slightest sound. For many, true sleep is rare. Most rest is obtained by catnapping in a flock, some of whose members are always watching for danger, or quietly roosting with one eye permanently open.

We tend to think that, with the exception of owls, all birds are inactive after dark. This is far from the truth. Tidal rhythms mean that mudflats may be exposed during darkness allowing those species to feed that find their food by touch. Many wildfowl forage nocturnally. They eat grass, plant roots and seed - non-specialised foods that could be consumed equally well during the day. Yet the birds seek them at night. Why? Because it is safer to dine when predators are off-duty.

Where birds sleep is more critical to their survival than how they sleep. The roosting site has to afford some protection from chill and precipitation as well as from enemies. Most snooze with the head turned and resting on the shoulder and the bill tucked among fluffed up back plumage. Fluffing out feathers improves insulation by trapping air against the warmth of the bird's body. Depending on the species, birds sleep while standing or sitting with feet locked on perches, or cling by toenails to tree-trunks.

Sometime in the last century, treecreepers made a discovery that changed their sleeping habits for good. Dating mainly from Victorian times, majestic redwoods from North America were widely planted as ornamental trees in parks and large estates throughout the British Isles. The bark is soft with a texture like cardboard. For the tree the spongy exterior acts as a protective fire blanket. Somehow, treecreepers chanced upon an alternative use as a deep pile mattress. Using their toenails, the birds scratch out a neat, body-sized hollow and flatten themselves against the trunk. Birds from a wide area converge on mature specimens and several may be found clamped on a single suitable tree. However, the species' ingenuity doesn't stop there. Over time, each makes not one hole but several encircling the trunk. This means that, depending on the direction of wind or rain, a bird will always have dry, draught-free overnight accommodation.

In biting cold, small birds face the prospect of freezing to death while asleep. Research on titmice found that, before going to roost, individuals need to have accumulated enough fat from daytime feeding activities to maintain their metabolism through the night. As an added energy-saving measure, the birds drop their temperature by almost 20 degrees Fahrenheit. In effect, they pass the night in a state of shivering hypothermia. Huddling together helps. A study of goldcrests revealed that when three birds snuggle together each reduced its loss of body heat by 38 per cent. Long-tailed tits have been observed preparing for sleep in the cold by pressing against each other and overlapping plumage until they formed a single mass of feathers.

Some species are opportunistic in spotting cosy sleeping quarters. Pied wagtails are well known for their selection of warm sites in severe weather, particularly greenhouses. City centres and large conurbations produce a microclimate or 'heat island effect', which is several degrees warmer than the surrounding countryside on a very cold night. Perhaps this explains mass roosting by starlings in built-up areas? Individuals often perch beside neon signs and street lamps. Presumably, the birds are not interested in the light but enjoy the faint glow of heat from the bulb.

The roosting habits of swifts are mysterious. Except when, as adults, they crawl inside holes in buildings to breed, the species stays permanently aloft - both night and day. The birds sleep on the wing but how do they avoid collisions and preserve a safe cruising altitude? Despite being an abundant summer visitor throughout the Northern Hemisphere their nocturnal behaviour has been little studied. However, in Suffolk in 1994 several hundred were watched just after dawn. Instead of flying and gliding around in the usual rapid manner, each maintained a stationary position on gently flapping wings. Basically, the birds were hovering and did so for almost an hour until the air warmed up and normal feeding flight resumed. This observation explained why radar research aimed at unravelling their actions failed to detect what they did. By moving very little, the birds rendered themselves invisible - truly, the world's first stealth aircraft.

Then came the Swedes. In 2000, using infra-red photography, they filmed swifts roosting like bats. Hanging by their toes the birds spent the night suspended on willow branches. The mystery just got deeper! "

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PostWysłany: Pią 21:00, 16 Mar 2007    Temat postu:

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PostWysłany: Wto 6:57, 03 Kwi 2007    Temat postu:

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